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Other Difficulties

Low Self Esteem

Low self-esteem is a condition where a person has a negative view of themselves and their abilities. They may feel unworthy, inadequate, and struggle with self-doubt. This can lead to a lack of confidence, difficulty making decisions, and avoidance of challenges or opportunities.


Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) can be helpful for people with low self-esteem. CBT works by helping individuals recognise and challenge negative thought patterns and beliefs that contribute to low self-esteem. Your therapist will help you learn new behavioural techniques, such as practicing assertiveness, taking on new challenges, and learning to cope with failure in a constructive way. By changing thought patterns and behaviours, individuals with low self-esteem can begin to develop a more positive sense of self-worth and confidence.

Sleep Problems

Sleep difficulties refer to any problems that people may experience in falling asleep or staying asleep. This can include difficulty falling asleep, waking up frequently during the night, waking up too early, or feeling tired or unrefreshed after sleeping.



Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) is a type of therapy that can be helpful for people with sleep difficulties. CBT-I works by identifying and addressing negative thought patterns and behaviours that contribute to sleep difficulties. In CBT-I, the therapist and client work together to develop strategies to improve sleep hygiene, such as establishing a consistent sleep schedule, avoiding stimulating activities before bedtime, and creating a relaxing sleep environment. CBT-I also focuses on changing negative thoughts and beliefs about sleep and teaching clients to replace these thoughts with more positive and adaptive ones.



CBT-I may also include sleep restriction therapy, which involves limiting the amount of time a person spends in bed in order to increase sleep efficiency. This can help to reset the body’s natural sleep-wake cycle and improve the quality of sleep. It has been shown to be an effective treatment for sleep difficulties, with research indicating that it can lead to significant improvements in sleep quality and duration, as well as reductions in symptoms of depression and anxiety.

Personality Disorder

A personality disorder is a mental health condition that affects the way a person thinks, feels, and behaves. It is characterised by persistent and rigid patterns of behaviour and thinking that deviate from the expectations of a person’s culture or society. These patterns can cause significant distress or impairment in personal, social, and work functioning.


In CBT, the therapist and client work together to identify and understand the underlying beliefs and assumptions that lead to problematic behaviours and emotions. The therapist helps the client to replace these negative patterns with more positive and adaptive ones. CBT can also involve exposure therapy, where the person gradually confronts situations or experiences that they have been avoiding due to anxiety or other symptoms related to their personality disorder.


CBT is often used in combination with other treatments, such as medication, group therapy, or family therapy, to help individuals with personality disorders achieve better outcomes. While personality disorders can be challenging to treat, CBT can be a helpful tool in managing symptoms and improving overall functioning.

Substance Abuse

Substance abuse is a pattern of harmful use of drugs or alcohol that leads to negative consequences in a person’s life. Substance abuse can affect a person’s physical health, mental health, and relationships, and can lead to a range of problems, including addiction, legal problems, and social and occupational dysfunction.


In CBT, the therapist and client work together to develop coping strategies to manage cravings and negative emotions that trigger substance use. CBT also focuses on developing alternative behaviours and coping mechanisms that can replace substance abuse. The goal of CBT is to help individuals develop more positive and adaptive patterns of thinking and behaviour that support recovery.


CBT can be used as a standalone treatment for substance abuse or in combination with other treatments, such as medication-assisted treatment, or 12-step programs. We will likely suggest that you are also being supported by a drug and alcohol service. CBT has been shown to be effective in treating substance abuse, reducing the frequency and severity of relapses, and improving overall functioning and quality of life.

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